History Of The Britons (Historia Brittonum) by Nennius
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47. Others assure us, that being hated by all the people of Britain,
for having received the Saxons, and being publicly charged by St.
Germanus and the clergy in the sight of God, he betook himself to
flight; and, that deserted and a wanderer, he sought a place of
refuge, till broken hearted, he made an ignominious end.
Some accounts state, that the earth opened and swallowed him up,
on the night his castle was burned; as no remains were discovered
the following morning, either of him, or of those who were burned
He had three sons: the eldest was Vortimer, who, as we have seen,
fought four times against the Saxons, and put them to flight;
the second Categirn, who was slain in the same battle with Horsa;
the third was Pascent, who reigned in the two provinces Builth
and Guorthegirnaim, after the death of his father. These
were granted him by Ambrosius, who was the great king among the
kings of Britain. The fourth was Faustus, born of an incestuous
marriage with his daughter, who was brought up and educated by
St. Germanus. He built a large monastery on the banks of the
river Renis, called after his name, and which remains to the
 In the northern part of the present counties of Radnor and
 V.R. The MSS. add, 'and he had one daughter, who was the
mother of St. Faustus.'
49. This is the genealogy of Vortigern, which goes back to
Fernvail, who reigned in the kingdom of Guorthegirnaim,
and was the son of Teudor; Teudor was the son of Pascent; Pascent
of Guoidcant; Guoidcant of Moriud; Moriud of Eltat; Eltat of
Eldoc; Eldoc of Paul; Paul of Meuprit; Meuprit of Braciat;
Braciat of Pascent; Pascent of Guorthegirn, Guorthegirn of
Guortheneu; Guortheneu of Guitaul; Guitaul of Guitolion; Guitolion
of Gloui. Bonus, Paul, Mauron, Guotelin, were four brothers, who
built Gloiuda, a great city upon the banks of the river Severn,
and in Birtish is called Cair Gloui, in Saxon, Gloucester. Enough
has been said of Vortigern.
 Fernvail, or Farinmail, appears to have been king of Gwent
 V.R. 'Two provinces, Builth and Guorthegirnaim.'
50. St. Germanus, after his death, returned into his own country.
*At that time, the Saxons greatly increased in Britain, both in
strength and numbers. And Octa, after the death of his father
Hengist, came from the sinistral part of the island to the kingdom
of Kent, and from him have proceeded all the kings of that province,
to the present period.
* V.R. All this to the word 'Amen,' in other MSS. is placed after
the legend of St. Patrick.
Then it was, that the magnanimous Arthur, with all the kings and
military force of Britain, fought against the Saxons. And though
there were many more noble than himself, yet he was twelve times
chosen their commander, and was as often conqueror. The first
battle in which he was engaged, was at the mouth of the river
Gleni. The second, third, fourth, and fifth, were on another
river, by the Britons called Duglas, in the region Linuis.
The sixth, on the river Bassas. The seventh in the wood Celidon,
which the Britons call Cat Coit Celidon. The eighth was near
Gurnion castle, where Arthur bore the image of the Holy Virgin,
mother of God, upon his shoulders, and through the power of our
Lord Jesus Christ, and the holy Mary, put the Saxons to flight,
and pursued them the whole day with great slaughter. The ninth
was at the City of Legion, which is called Cair Lion. The
tenth was on the banks of the river Trat Treuroit. The eleventh
was on the mountain Breguoin, which we call Cat Bregion. The
twelfth was a most severe contest, when Arthur penetrated to the
hill of Badon. In this engagement, nine hundred and forty fell
by his hand alone, no one but the Lord affording him assistance.
In all these engagements the Britons were successful. For no
strength can avail against the will of the Almighty.
 Supposed by some to be the Glem, in Lincolnshire; but most
probably the Glen, in the northern part of Northumberland.
 Or Dubglas. The little river Dunglas, which formed the
southern boundary of Lothian. Whitaker says, the river Duglas,
in Lancashire, near Wigan.
 Not a river, but an isolated rock in the Frith of Forth, near
the town of North Berwick, called "The Bass." Some think it is
the river Lusas, in Hampshire.
 The Caledonian forest; or the forest of Englewood, extending
from Penrith to Carlisle.
 Variously supposed to be in Cornwall, or Binchester in Durham,
but most probably the Roman station of Garionenum, near Yarmouth,
 V.R. The image of the cross of Christ, and of the perpetual
virgin St. Mary.
 V.R. For Arthur proceeded to Jerusalem, and there made a cross
to the size of the Saviour's cross, and there it was consecrated,
and for three successive days he fasted, watched, and prayed,
before the Lord's cross, that the Lord would give him the victory,
by this sign, over the heathen; which also took place, and he took
with him the image of St. Mary, the fragments of which are still
preserved in great veneration at Wedale, in English Wodale, in
Latin Vallis-doloris. Wodale is a village in the province of
Lodonesia, but now of the jurisdiction of the bishop of St. Andrew's,
of Scotland, six miles on the west of that heretofore noble and
eminent monastery of Meilros.
 Or Ribroit, the Brue, in Somersetshire; or the Ribble, in
 Or Agned Cathregonion, Cadbury, in Somersetshire; or Edinburgh
The more the Saxons were vanquished, the more they sought for new
supplies of Saxons from Germany; so that kings, commanders, and
military bands were invited over from almost every province. And
this practice they continued till the reign of Ida, who was the
son of Eoppa, he, of the Saxon race, was the first king in Bernicia,
and in Cair Ebrauc (York).
When Gratian Aequantius was consul at rome, because then the whole
world was governed by the Roman consuls, the Saxons were received
by Vortigern in the year of our Lord four hundred and forty-seven,
and to the year in which we now write, five hundred and forty-seven.
And whosoever shall read herein may receive instruction, the Lord
Jesus Christ affording assistance, who, co-eternal with the Father
and the Holy Ghost, lives and reigns for ever and ever. Amen.
In those days Saint Patrick was captive among the Scots. His
master's name was Milcho, to whom he was a swineherd for seven
years. When he had attained the age of seventeen he gave him his
liberty. By the divine impulse, he applied himself to reading of
the Scriptures, and afterwards went to Rome; where, replenished
with the Holy Spirit, he continued a great while, studying the
sacred mysteries of those writings. During his continuance there,
Palladius, the first bishop, was sent by pope Celestine to convert
the Scots [the Irish]. But tempests and signs from God prevented
his landing, for no one can arrive in any country, except it be
allowed from above; altering therefore his course from Ireland,
he came to Britain and died in the land of the Picts.*
* At Fordun, in the district of Mearns, in Scotland-Usher.
51. The death of Palladius being known, the Roman patricians,
Theodosius and Valentinian, then reigning, pope Celestine sent
Patrick to convert the Scots to the faith of the Holy Trinity;
Victor, the angel of God, accompanying, admonishing, and assisting
him, and also the bishop Germanus.
Germanus then sent the ancient Segerus with him as a venerable
and praiseworthy bishop, to king Amatheus, who lived near, and
who had prescience of what was to happen; he was consecrated bishop
in the reign of that king by the holy pontiff, assuming the
name of Patrick, having hitherto been known by that of Maun;
Auxilius, Isserninus, and other brothers were ordained with him
to inferior degrees.
 V.R. Germanus "sent the elder Segerus with him to a wonderful
man, the holy bishop Amathearex." Another MS. "Sent the elder
Segerus, a bishop, with him to Amatheorex."
 V.R. "Received the episcopal degree from the holy bishop
Amatheorex." Another MS. "Received the episcopal degree from
Matheorex and the holy bishop."
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